Realism, in architecture. Broad use (1) borrowed from art history, to mean ’depicting (or engaging with) things as they are’. Specific use of the term as a translation of the German term ’Sachlichkeit’ (alternatively, ’objectivity’), which gained traction in early Modernist architecture to denote (2) the normative stance that depersonalized factors rank higher than individualist, subjective ones (contrast expressionism) and (3) the agenda to accomodate the real needs of contemporary society on a sober, de-romanticized understanding of those needs. – Realism, in philosophy: broad term to contrast subjectivism, e.g. in (4) ontology(1): position on which there are (or might be) things subjective agents are unaware of (contrast idealism), or in (5) the philosophy of language and epistemology: stance that there can be statements with a determinate truth value, though appraising these statements for truth (or falsity) outruns our epistemic possibilities (contrast anti-realism).
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